Five Essential Components Of Reading
Reading with children and helping them practice specific reading components
can dramatically improve their ability to read. Scientific research shows that
there are five essential components of reading that children must be taught in
order to learn to read.
1. Phonemic Awareness
- Recognizing and using individual sounds to create
words. Children need to be taught to hear the individual sounds in words. They
should be taught that words are made up of small parts of sounds called
- Understanding the relationships between written letters and spoken
sounds. Children need to be taught the sounds associated with individual
printed letters and groups of letters. Knowing the relationships between letters
and sounds helps children to recognize familiar words accurately and
automatically, and "decode" new words.
3. Reading Fluency
- Developing the ability to read a text accurately and quickly.
Children must learn to read words rapidly and accurately in order to understand
what is read. When fluent readers read silently, they recognize words
automatically. When fluent readers read aloud, they read effortlessly and with
expression. Readers who are weak in fluency read slowly, word by word,
focusing on decoding words instead of comprehending meaning.
4. Vocabulary Development -
Children need to actively build and expand their
knowledge of written and spoken words, what they mean and how they are
used. As children learn new word meanings or pronunciations, vocabulary is
5. Reading Comprehension
- Acquiring strategies to understand, remember, and
communicate what is read. Children need to be taught comprehension
strategies, or the steps good readers use to make sure they understand text.
Students who are in control of their own reading comprehension become
purposeful, active readers.